FICO Credit Scores: What Do They Mean?
Because our world is so computer-driven, it should come as no surprise that your creditworthiness comes down to one number.
This score is built by credit reporting agencies. They use the payment history of your various loans: credit cards, mortgages, car/boat loans etcetera.
Equifax, TransUnion, and Experian, the three major credit reporting agencies, each have their own proprietary formula for building a credit score. The original FICO model was developed by Fair Isaac and Company.
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, the differences aren't huge; they all use the following factors to build a credit score:
- Your Credit History - How long have you had credit?
- Payment History - Do you have any payments later than 30 days?
- Balances on your Credit Cards - How many credit card accounts do you hold, and how much do you owe on them?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have lenders pulled your credit report for the purpose of lending you money?
These factors are assigned weights based on the formula being used. The results are added up and distilled into a single number. Credit scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is always better. Typical home buyers will likely find their scores between 620 and 800.
Your score affects your monthly payment
Credit scores are used for more than just determining whether or not you qualify for a mortgage. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Raising your credit score
What can you do to improve your FICO score? Unfortunately, not much. Some companies promise quick fixes, but they can't do anything different than what you can do — for free. (Of course you can and should appeal incorrect items on your credit report.)
Getting your FICO score
To raise your FICO score, you must have the credit reports that the agencies use to build it, and of course, you need the score itself. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score as well as reports from all three agencies. Also available are helpful information and tools that can help you improve your credit score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report every year from the three major agencies at AnnualCreditReport.com. These reports do not include a free credit score, but it's very inexpensive to get one at the same time.
Armed with this info, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to get the most favorable mortgage.
Want to know more about your FICO score? Call us: (334) 285-8850.